# Editing and Manipulating Text Files

Editing and manipulating text files from a terminal is a typical task. You may find that with practice, using the terminal to edit text files is far easier and more powerful than using a GUI text editor.

What we often call a “terminal” is in fact a terminal emulator. The first terminals, before the advent of video displays, were actually teletypewriters (abreviated tty). Text editing is quite literally what they were designed for. Click here to see how far we’ve come since the 60’s.

## Find What You’re Looking For

There are several useful commands that exist for finding a desired file.

### The Command find

The command find searches the filesystem for files based on their metadata. The metadata that can be used to search for files includes, but is not limited to a file’s:

• Filename
• Filetype
• Size
• Creation Date
• Access Date
• Modification Date
• Executables
• Permission Mode

Unlike search mechanisms found outside a terminal (like Window Search or Apple’s Spotlight) which only list the files found, find can do things to the files it finds. The tasks you can have find do are limited only by your imagination. The syntax for find is:

find [-H] [-L] [-P] [-D debugopts] [-Olevel] [path...] [expression]


but the key to using find is in the path and expression arguments, which can be complex. Details on how to use find and construct an expression can be found in the find tutorial.

#### Examples

Print all regular files named exactly “.bashrc” within and below ~:

$find ~ -type f -name .bashrc  Print all regular files ending in “rc” within ~ and below: $ find ~ -type f -name "*rc"


Print all files (regular and directories) ending in “rc” within ~:

$find ~ -name "*rc"  Print only directories one level into /etc that are 3 characters long which end with “sh” or “sl” $ find /etc -maxdepth 1 -type d -name "?s[hl]"


Find all files in ~ ending with “.jpg” or “.png” in any case that were created within the last 2 days.

$find ~ -type f $-iname "*.jpg" -or -iname "*.png"$ -and -ctime -2  Find all the files strictly in /tmp named “data_NN.dat” where NN runs from 00-99 and run the command ls -l FILE on each of them: $ find /tmp -maxdepth 1 -type f -iname "data_[0-9][0-9].dat" -execdir ls -l {} \;


Have you ever needed to analyze hundreds of data files? Imagine if instead of calling ls on these files, you called a program that you wrote to analyze that data. This is a quick way to generate those hundreds of plots you need to process from your research data.

### The Command grep

Sometimes what you’re looking for is inside a file. We can use the command grep to find lines in a file or set of files that match a given pattern. This is no ordinary document search. grep allows the use of regular expressions to match against complicated patterns (the name is short for globally search a regular expression and print). The basic syntax is

grep [OPTIONS] PATTERN [FILE...]


grep searchs all given FILEs for the given PATTERN. The pattern type and output can be customized through various options. If no file is given, grep will search standard input.

grep expects a regex. As said before, the details of writing a regular expression are beyond the scope of this tutorial, but we’ll show you some examples of how to use grep and the power of regular expressions anyway:

Find all lines containing the word ‘alias’ in ~/.bashrc:

$grep alias ~/.bashrc  Find all the lines containing ‘apple’ in the unix dictionary file: $ grep apple /usr/share/dict/words


Use a regex to find all lines containing ‘apple’ when ‘apple’ doesn’t start or end a word:

$grep -E "[a-z]+apple[a-z]+" /usr/share/dict/words  Find all the words starting with ‘zo’ and ending in ‘ing’ as long as they do not end in ‘zing’ or ‘sing’: $ grep -E "^zo.*[^zs]ing$" /usr/share/dict/words  Find all the words starting with ‘zo’ and ending in either ‘zing’ or ‘sing’: $ grep -E "^zo.*[zs]ing$" /usr/share/dict/words  Find all lines that start with ‘class’ preceeded by any amount of whitespace in each file in the Python library directory. $ grep -A 4 -d skip -E "^\s*class" /usr/lib/python2.7/site-packages/*


Find the declarations of all the Python functions in all the Python files in the Python library directory that take exactly three arguments that are not cast into tuples and show their line numbers.

$grep -n -d skip -E "^\s*def\s[a-zA-Z]*$([^$$$,]*,){2}[^,]*$$" /usr/lib/python2.7/site-packages/*  Good luck trying to search for something that specific in Windows. Just imagine if your text editor could do find and replace operations using regular expressions… There are a number of options that can be used with grep to find exactly what you are looking for. A few of the most useful ones include: -m NUM --max-count=NUM Stop reading a file after NUM matches. -n --line-number Prefix the line number where the match occurs in the output. -A NUM “After context”. Print NUM lines following a match. Useful if you are looking for an unknown expression near a known expression. -B NUM “Before context”. Print NUM lines preceeding a match. -C NUM “Context”. Print NUM lines both preceeding and following a match. -d ACTION Directory action. Controls how grep behaves when it encounters a directory. Default is ‘read’, but can be ‘skip’ or ‘recurse’ as well. ## Reading Files ### The Commands head, tail and cat The command head prints the first 10 lines of each file passed to it to standard output. The option -n NUM can be used to show NUM lines instead of 10. $ head /etc/passwd


The command tail prints the last 10 lines of a file to standard output. Like head, you can pass the option -n NUM to change the number of lines printed.

$tail /etc/passwd  The -f switch will continue to print output as the file grows. This is useful for watching log files to test and debug programs. The command cat (short for concatenate) will concatenate all files passed to it and print them to standard output. This is useful for reading small files by themselves. The real use of cat is to combine files, especially when used with stream redirection and pipes, both of which we’ll talk about later. $ cat /etc/passwd /etc/group


### Pagers and less

The best way to actually read a text file in the terminal is to use a pager. A pager allows one to view and move through a text stream ‘one page at a time’. One of the earliest pagers was a program called more that allowed a user to step forward (and only forward) through a long stream of text lines. This limitation makes using more to read through a text stream cumbersome. Thus more has been largely supplanted by a program called less for paging in terminals. less is the default pager on most systems.

The authors of GNU software often have terrible senses of humor. In this case naming the program less because less is ‘more’ while more is ‘less’.

If you’ve looked at a man page, the output was probably dumped into less, which takes up the whole terminal screen.

We can load a document into less by calling:

$less FILE  You can scroll text in less using the Up and Down keys. However, you can also scroll up and down using k and j respectively. You’ll notice that k and j are the keys the most powerful fingers of your right hand rest on when your hands are in the touch-typing home row. This is a common theme in many programs and stems from a program which we’ll talk about in a moment called vi. There are many keyboard short-cuts in less. Some of the most useful are: q Quits less and returns you to the terminal prompt. g Goes to the top of the document, or, if a number N is typed before pressing g, goes to the Nth line of the document. G Go to the end of the document. Space Scrolls down one page at a time. m When m is pressed and followed by any lowercase letter, the current position in the document is bookmarked to that letter name. ' A single quote followed by a lowercase letter returns the view bookmarked with that letter. /EXPR ?EXPR Searchs forward or backward through the document for text matching the regular expression EXPR. If a match is found, the pager jumps to the matching text. n N Repeats the previous search, jumping to the next search match. N repeats the search in reverse direction. ## Editing Files Editing text is done properly using a dedicated text editor. There are many available for use in a terminal, and we’ll look at the basics of the most commonly available. ### Nano The default terminal text editor on Ubuntu-based flavors of GNU/Linux is a program called nano (a recursive acronym for “nano is another editor). Nano is easy to learn and simple to use. Nano is good for those who are new to terminal text editors because of both its simplicity as well as its on-screen help mode which is enabled by default and gives hints about how to use it. Nano is invoked by calling: $ nano [OPTIONS] [[+LINE,COLUMN] FILE]...


At the bottom of the program are the help mode hints. The symbol ^ indicates the Ctrl key. So pressing Ctrl g will bring up an on-screen help menu. Keyboard shortcuts with M- indicate the ‘meta’ key which is typically Alt.

Ctrl G
Display the help text
Ctrl X
Close the current file buffer / Exit from nano
Ctrl O
Write the current file to disk
Ctrl J
Justify the current paragraph
Ctrl W
Search for a string or a regular expression
Ctrl Y
Go to previous screen
Ctrl V
Go to next screen
Ctrl K
Cut the current line and store it in the cutbuffer
Ctrl U
Uncut from the cutbuffer into the current line
Ctrl C
Display the position of the cursor
Ctrl T
Invoke the spell checker, if available
Alt \
Go to the first line of the file
Alt /
Go to the last line of the file
Ctrl \_
Go to line and column number
Ctrl \\
Replace a string or a regular expression
Ctrl ^
Mark text at the cursor position
Alt W
Repeat last search
Alt ^
Copy the current line and store it in the cutbuffer
Alt }
Indent the current line
Alt {
Unindent the current line
Ctrl Space
Go forward one word
Alt Space
Go back one word

Lines that are longer than the width of the terminal are, by default, allowed to go off the screen. When this happens, a \$ symbol is shown at the edge of the line where it continues off-screen.

Nano has a soft-wrap mode that will wrap lines on screen, but not put hard carraige returns in the lines. It also has a hard-wrap mode where long lines will be broken up into new lines. Be careful about which wrapping mode you are in, especially when editing programs, scripts, and configuration files.

Nano is a safe choice for quickly editing a file in a terminal, but its simplicity and heavy use of Ctrl in editing operations makes it hard to use for any serious writing, especially programming. A better alternative is to use a more fully featured editor with a more comfortable interface. If you are working with files on a local machine, then a GUI-based text editor like Sublime Text, Gedit, Textmate, Kate, Notepad++ may be a better choice.

If you must do lots of serious editing in a terminal (for example, you do a lot of work on a remote cluster on the other side of the world where your experiment resides over a crummy trans-pacific network connection), then it may be worth the time investment to learn to use an adept terminal-mode editor like ViM.

### Vi and ViM

ViM is a super-powerful terminal-friendly extensible modal text editor.

Once mastered, ViM allows an author to do mind-boggling text-editing operations at lightning speed using minimal keystrokes. The key phrase here is “once mastered”. Someone who has used ViM daily for 10 years will still be learning about new features, tricks, and techniques. It has a steep learning curve to begin to use effectively. It requires you to unlearn many paradigms of text editing before you can really get it. However, many people who adopt it find themselves wondering how they ever got along without it.

We are not going to learn ViM in this tutorial.

So why mention it?

Long, long ago in the before-time, there was ed, the editor. But ed was awful and was replaced by ex, the extended editor. And then CRT monitors replaced teletypewriters, and ex was given a visual mode which came to be called vi. vi lives on today as the de facto standard Unix editor and is available on virtually all Unix-like systems. However, vi is an extremely minimal editor. Yet the nature of how it works is very appealing so it was improved into a full-featured editor vim or the “vi improved” editor. vim adds a great many features beyond what vi was originally designed for.

As you spend more and more time working in a terminal, and because of the long historical relationship between vi and Unix, there is a good chance that you may one day find yourself suddenly in a vi session. When that happens, if you have not been exposed to vi, nothing will quell your panic.

You press the keys with no effect,
The screen blurs, your fingers shake;
You forgot to press escape.
Can’t insert, can’t delete,
Cursor keys won’t repeat.
You try to quit, but can’t leave,
An extra “bang” is all you need.

– Chuck Musciano, Addicted To vi

vi and it’s younger cousin vim are modal editors. These editors can be put into a number of modes within which keypresses do specific actions. The two most important modes are normal mode and insert mode. Upon startup vi and vim will be in normal mode. Here, the keys h, j, k, and l can be used to move the cursor left, down, up, and right respectively. Essentially every key does something in normal mode. Key combinations do even more things.

One must be careful about hitting random keys in vi/vim’s normal mode. For instance the key sequence ggdG will appear to erase the whole document. It does the same thing as Ctrl-a Ctrl-v would in a GUI text editor.

Pressing u in normal mode will undo the last change. vim keeps a lengthy default undo history.

vi keeps only one operation in its undo history. Don’t mess up!

To actually enter text, you need to switch modes to insert mode. This can be done many ways. From normal mode, you can start editing text in insert mody by pressing:

i
To insert text where the cursor cursor currently is. This is the ordinary way to enter insert mode.
a
Enter insert mode to append text immediately after the cursor.
I
Enter insert mode to insert text at the beginning of the current line
A
Enter insert mode to append text at the end of the line
o
To open a new line below the cursor and insert text there.
So on and so forth

There are thousands of keybindings that do specific things. When you learn to use them, you can edit text faster and easier than you ever have before but you can see how these editors are not for the faint of heart.

Pressing Esc will return you from insert mode back to normal mode. In normal mode, you can also issue commands to the editor from a command line mode. To enter command mode, press :. Once in command mode, a : appears at the bottom of the editor. Typing will write out the command after the : and pressing Enter will issue the command.

The commands you need to know are:

:q
Quits the editor. If there are unsaved changes and you wish to quit without saving, you must issue the command :q!.
:w
Saves (writes) any changes to the file. If creating a new document with no file yet, you must issue the command :w FILENAME.

Commands can be chained together. For instance, the command :wq will save the file and then quit the editor.

This is the bare minimum you need to know if you ever find yourself spontaneously in a vi session editing some crucial file.

For the record, this entire tutorial page was written in ViM, which is by far the author’s favorite editor for everything between plain text and programming. It takes a few weeks of learning to become modestly proficient and a few years to master, but if you spend much of your day writing documents or code, the effort put into learning ViM is absolutely worth it. Oh, and it does find-and-replace operations using regular expressions.